The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian
Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.
ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any
consequence of their use.
By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term “country” in this
document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Note: In this publication, “$” refers to US dollars.